Refereed Preprints

Review Commons provides authors with a Refereed Preprint, which includes the authors’ manuscript, reports from a single round of peer review and the authors’ response. These Refereed Preprints are transferred on the author’s behalf to bioRxiv. The most recently-completed Review Commons peer-reviews are listed below, with the most recently posted reviews at the top.

Latest Refereed Preprints

Molecular Biology | 07 May 2020
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Transcriptional comparison of Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors with fetal and adult tissues

Mariska A.M. Schröder, Fred C.G.J. Sweep, Antonius E. van Herwaarden, Alan E. Rowan, Darren Korbie, Rod T. Mitchell, Nike M.M.L. Stikkelbroeck, Hedi L. Claahsen – van der Grinten, Paul N. Span

Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors (TART) are a common complication of unknown origin in patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. These benign tumors may derive from cells of adrenal origin or from pluripotent progenitor cells from the fetal adrenogonadal primordium. By comparing the transcriptome of TART with fetal- and adult-testis and adrenal tissues, this study aims to unravel the origin of TART. Targeted transcriptome sequencing was followed by unsupervised clustering-, differential expression-, functional enrichment- and pathway analyses. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated co-expression of adrenal-specific CYP11B1 and testis-specific HSD17B3 in TART, indicating the existence of a distinct TART cell exhibiting both adrenal- and testicular characteristics. Principal component analysis indicated that the TART transcriptome was distinct from either adrenal or testis fetal tissue, making a progenitor-like phenotype of TART unlikely. Rather, TART appears to originate from -or differentiate into-a mature cell type, with both adrenal- and testicular characteristics. The present study, the first to describe the TART transcriptome, expands knowledge about the identity and functional characteristics of TART and identifies clinically targetable pathways associated with fibrosis.
Developmental Biology | 23 Apr 2020
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Vasohibin-1 mediated tubulin detyrosination selectively regulates secondary sprouting and lymphangiogenesis in the zebrafish trunk

Bastos de Oliveira Marta, Meier Katja, Coxam Baptiste, Geudens Ilse, Jung Simone, Szymborska Anna, Gerhardt Holger

Previous studies have shown that Vasohibin-1 (Vash-1) is stimulated by VEGFs in endothelial cells and that its overexpression interferes with angiogenesis in vivo. Recently, Vasohibin-1 was found to mediate tubulin detyrosination, a post-translational modification that is implicated in many cell functions, such as cell division. Here we used the zebrafish embryo to investigate the cellular and subcellular mechanisms of Vash-1 on endothelial microtubules during formation of the trunk vasculature. We show that microtubules within venous-derived secondary sprouts are strongly and selectively detyrosinated in comparison with other endothelial cells, and that this difference is lost upon vash-1 knockdown. Vasohibin-1 depletion in zebrafish specifically affected secondary sprouting from the posterior cardinal vein, increasing both the number of sprouts and endothelial cell divisions. We show that altering secondary sprout numbers and structure upon vash-1 depletion leads to a failure in the development and specification of lymphatic vessels of the zebrafish trunk.Vasohibin-1 mediated detyrosination of endothelial microtubules is selectively required for adequate behaviour of venous secondary sprouting and subsequent formation of functional lymphatics in the zebrafish trunk.
Immunology | 20 Dec 2019
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Rewired signaling network in T cells expressing the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)

Rui Dong, Kendra A. Libby, Franziska Blaeschke, Alexander Marson, Ronald D. Vale, Xiaolei Su

The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directs T cells to target and kill specific cancer cells. Despite the success of CAR T therapy in clinics, the intracellular signaling pathways that lead to CAR T cell activation remain unclear. Using CD19 CAR as a model, we report that, similar to the endogenous T cell receptor (TCR), antigen-engagement triggers the formation of CAR microclusters that transduce downstream signaling. However, CAR microclusters do not coalesce into a stable central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC). Moreover, LAT, an essential scaffold protein for TCR signaling, is not required for microcluster formation, immunological synapse formation, and actin remodeling following CAR activation. Meanwhile, CAR T cells still require LAT for the normal production of the cytokine IL-2. Together, these data show that CAR T cells can bypass LAT for a subset of downstream signaling outputs, thus revealing a rewired signaling pathway as compared to native T cells.
Cell Biology | 03 May 2020
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Homology-directed repair involves multiple strand invasion cycles in fission yeast

Amanda J. Vines, Kenneth Cox, Bryan A. Leland, Megan C. King

Homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be a highly faithful pathway. Non-crossover repair dominates in mitotically growing cells, likely through a preference for synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA). While genetic studies highlight a key role for the RecQ helicase BLM/Rqh1 (in human and S. pombe cells, respectively) in promoting noncrossover repair, how homology-directed repair mechanism choice is orchestrated in time and space is not well understood. Here, we develop a microscopy-based assay in living fission yeast to determine the dynamics and kinetics of an engineered, site-specific interhomologue repair event. We observe highly efficient homology search and homology-directed repair in this system. Surprisingly, we find that the initial distance between the DSB and the donor sequence does not correlate with the duration of repair. Instead, we observe that repair is likely to involve multiple site-specific and Rad51-dependent co-localization events between the DSB and donor sequence, suggesting that efficient interhomologue repair in fission yeast often involves multiple strand invasion events. By contrast, we find that loss of Rqh1 leads to successful repair through a single strand invasion event, suggesting that multiple strand invasion cycles reflect ongoing SDSA. However, failure to repair is also more likely in rqh1Δ cells, which could reflect increased strand invasion at non-homologous sites. This work has implications for the molecular etiology of Bloom syndrome, caused by mutations in BLM and characterized by aberrant sister chromatid crossovers and inefficient repair.
Molecular Biology | 23 Apr 2020
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ESI mutagenesis: A one-step method for introducing point mutations into bacterial artificial chromosome transgenes

Arnaud Rondelet, Andrei Pozniakovsky, Marit Leuschner, Ina Poser, Andrea Ssykor, Julian Berlitz, Nadine Schmidt, Anthony A Hyman, Alexander W Bird

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based transgenes have emerged as a powerful tool for controlled and conditional interrogation of protein function in higher eukaryotes. While homologous recombination-based recombineering methods have streamlined the efficient integration of protein tags onto BAC transgenes, generating precise point mutations has remained less efficient and time-consuming. Here we present a simplified method for inserting point mutations into BAC transgenes requiring a single recombineering step followed by antibiotic selection. This technique, which we call ESI (Exogenous/Synthetic Intronization) mutagenesis, relies on co-integration of a mutation of interest along with a selectable marker gene, the latter of which is harboured in an artificial intron adjacent to the mutation site. Cell lines generated from ESI-mutated BACs express the transgenes equivalently to the endogenous gene, and all cells efficiently splice out the synthetic intron. Thus, ESI-mutagenesis provides a robust and effective single-step method with high precision and high efficiency for mutating BAC transgenes.
Cell Biology | 10 May 2020
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The establishment of branched structures by single cells involves complex cytoskeletal remodelling events. In Drosophila, epithelial tracheal system terminal cells (TCs) and dendritic arborisation neurons are models for these subcellular branching processes. During tracheal embryonic development, the generation of subcellular branches is characterized by extensive remodelling of the microtubule (MT) network and actin cytoskeleton, followed by vesicular transport and membrane dynamics. We have previously shown that centrosomes are key players in the initiation of subcellular lumen formation where they act as microtubule organizing centres (MTOCs). However, not much is known on the events that lead to the growth of these subcellular luminal branches or what makes them progress through a particular trajectory within the cytoplasm of the TC. Here, we have identified that the spectraplakin Short-stop (Shot) promotes the crosstalk between MTs and actin, which leads to the extension and guidance of the subcellular lumen within the TC cytoplasm. Shot is enriched in cells undergoing the initial steps of subcellular branching as a direct response to FGF signalling. An excess of Shot induces ectopic acentrosomal branching points in the embryonic and larval tracheal TC leading to cells with extra subcellular lumina. These data provide the first evidence for a role for spectraplakins in subcellular lumen formation and branching.
Genomics | 17 Apr 2020
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Pervasive enhancer transcription is at the origin of more than half of all long noncoding RNAs in humans. Transcription of enhancer-associated long noncoding RNAs (elncRNA) contribute to their cognate enhancer activity and gene expression regulation in cis. Recently, splicing of elncRNAs was shown to be associated with elevated enhancer activity. However, whether splicing of elncRNA transcripts is a mere consequence of accessibility at highly active enhancers or if elncRNA splicing directly impacts enhancer function, remains unanswered.We analysed genetically driven changes in elncRNA expression, in humans, to address this outstanding question. We showed that splicing related motifs within multi-exonic elncRNAs evolved under selective constraints during human evolution, suggesting the processing of these transcripts is unlikely to have resulted from transcription across spurious splice sites. Using a genome-wide and unbiased approach, we used nucleotide variants as independent genetic factors to directly assess the causal relationship that underpin elncRNA splicing and their cognate enhancer activity. We found that the splicing of most elncRNAs is associated with changes in chromatin signatures at cognate enhancers and target mRNA expression.We conclude that efficient and conserved processing of enhancer-associated elncRNAs contributes to enhancer activity.
Epidemiology | 02 Mar 2020
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Profiles of circulating histidine-rich glycoprotein associate with chronological age and risk of all-cause mortality

Mun-Gwan Hong, Tea Dodig-Crnković, Xu Chen, Kimi Drobin, Woojoo Lee, Yunzhang Wang, Fredrik Edfors, David Kotol, Cecilia Engel Thomas, Ronald Sjöberg, Jacob Odeberg, Anders Hamsten, Angela Silveira, Per Hall, Peter Nilsson, Yudi Pawitan, Sara Hägg, Mathias Uhlén, Nancy L. Pedersen, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Jochen M. Schwenk

1.Despite recognizing aging as risk factor of human diseases, little is still known about the molecular traits of biological age and mortality risk. To identify age-associated proteins circulating human blood, we screened 156 subjects aged 50-92 years using an exploratory and multiplexed affinity proteomics approach. We corroborated the top age-associated protein profile (adjusted P < 0.001) in eight additional study sets (N = 4,044 individuals), and confirmed a consistent age-associated increase (P = 6.61 × 10-6) by meta-analysis. Applying antibody validation determined circulating histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) as the target, and we observed that sequence variants influenced the antibodies ability to bind to the protein. Profiles of circulating HRG were associated to several clinical traits and predicted the risk of mortality during a follow-up period of 8.5 years (IQR = 7.7-9.3 years) after blood sampling (HR = 1.25 per SD; 95% CI = 1.12-1.39; P = 7.41 × 10-5). In conclusion, our affinity proteomics analysis found associations between the molecular traits of circulating HRG with age and all-cause mortality. This suggests that the profiles of multi-purpose protein HRG could serve as an accessible indicator of physiological processes related to aging.
Biochemistry | 23 Jun 2020
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Structures of three MORN repeat proteins and a re-evaluation of the proposed lipid-binding properties of MORN repeats

Sara Sajko, Irina Grishkovskaya, Julius Kostan, Melissa Graewert, Kim Setiawan, Linda Trübestein, Korbinian Niedermüller, Charlotte Gehin, Antonio Sponga, Martin Puchinger, Anne-Claude Gavin, Thomas Leonard, Dimitri Svergun, Terry K. Smith, Brooke Morriswood, Kristina Djinovic-Carugo

MORN (Membrane Occupation and Recognition Nexus) repeat proteins have a wide taxonomic distribution, being found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Despite this ubiquity, they remain poorly characterised at both a structural and a functional level compared to other common repeats. In functional terms, they are often assumed to be lipid-binding modules that mediate membrane targeting. We addressed this putative activity by focusing on a protein composed solely of MORN repeats – Trypanosoma brucei MORN1. Surprisingly, no evidence for binding to membranes or lipid vesicles by TbMORN1 could be obtained either in vivo or in vitro. Conversely, TbMORN1 did interact with individual phospholipids. High- and low-resolution structures of the MORN1 protein from Trypanosoma brucei and homologous proteins from the parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum were obtained using a combination of macromolecular crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering, and electron microscopy. This enabled a first structure-based definition of the MORN repeat itself. Furthermore, all three structures dimerised via their C-termini in an antiparallel configuration. The dimers could form extended or V-shaped quaternary structures depending on the presence of specific interface residues. This work provides a new perspective on MORN repeats, showing that they are protein-protein interaction modules capable of mediating both dimerisation and oligomerisation.
Cell Biology | 13 Apr 2020
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Mitochondrial dysfunction causes muscle wasting (or atrophy) in many diseases and probably also during aging. The underlying mechanism is unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that substantial levels of bioenergetic deficiency and oxidative stress are insufficient by themselves to intrinsically cause muscle wasting, raising the possibility that non-bioenergetic factors may contribute to mitochondria-induced muscle wasting. In this report, we show that chronic adaptation to mitochondria-induced proteostatic stress in the cytosol induces muscle wasting. We generated transgenic mice with unbalanced mitochondrial protein loading and import, by a two-fold increase in the expression of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial carrier protein, Ant1. We found that the ANT1-transgenic mice progressively lose muscle mass. Skeletal muscle is severely atrophic in older mice without affecting the overall lifespan. Mechanistically, Ant1 overloading induces aggresome-like structures and the expression of small heat shock proteins in the cytosol. The data support mitochondrial Precursor Overaccumulation Stress (mPOS), a recently discovered cellular stress mechanism caused by the toxic accumulation of unimported mitochondrial precursors/preproteins. Importantly, the ANT1-transgenic muscles have a drastically remodeled transcriptome that appears to be trying to counteract mPOS, by repressing protein synthesis, and by stimulating proteasomal function, autophagy and lysosomal amplification. These anti-mPOS responses collectively reduce protein content, which is known to decrease myofiber size and muscle mass. Our work therefore revealed that a subtle imbalance between mitochondrial protein load and import is sufficient to induce mPOS in vivo, and that anti-mPOS adaptation is a robust mechanism of muscle wasting. This finding may help improve the understanding of how mitochondria contribute to muscle wasting. It could have direct implications for several human diseases associated with ANT1 overexpression, including Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy (FSHD).One Sentence SummaryProteostatic adaptations to proteostatic stress in the cytosol caused by unbalanced mitochondrial protein loading and import lead to progressive muscle wasting.
Cell Biology | 14 Apr 2020
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Alpha-satellite RNA transcripts are repressed by centromere-nucleolus associations

Leah Bury, Brittania Moodie, Liliana S. McKay, Karen H. Miga, Iain M. Cheeseman

Centromeres play a fundamental role in chromosome segregation. Although originally thought to be silent chromosomal regions, centromeres are actively transcribed. However, the behavior and contributions of centromere-derived RNAs have remained unclear. Here, we used single-molecule fluorescence in-situ hybridization (smFISH) to detect alpha-satellite RNA transcripts in intact human cells. We find that alpha-satellite RNA smFISH foci fluctuate in their levels over the cell cycle and do not remain associated with centromeres, displaying localization consistent with other long non-coding RNAs. Our results demonstrate that alpha-satellite expression occurs through RNA Polymerase II-dependent transcription, but does not require centromere proteins and other cell division components. Instead, our work implicates centromere-nucleolar associations as the major factor regulating alpha-satellite expression. The fraction of nucleolar-localized centromeres inversely correlates with alpha-satellite transcripts levels, explaining variations in alpha-satellite RNA between cell lines. In addition, alpha-satellite transcript levels increase substantially when the nucleolus is disrupted. Together, our results are inconsistent with a direct, physical role for alpha-satellite transcripts in cell division processes, and instead support a role for ongoing transcription in promoting centromere chromatin dynamics. The control of alpha-satellite transcription by centromere-nucleolar contacts provides a mechanism to modulate centromere transcription and chromatin dynamics across diverse cell states and conditions.
Cell Biology | 18 Mar 2020
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Optogenetic control of PRC1 reveals its role in chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate

Mihaela Jagrić, Patrik Risteski, Jelena Martinčić, Ana Milas, Iva M. Tolić

During metaphase, chromosome position at the spindle equator is mainly regulated by the forces exerted by kinetochore microtubules. However, the role of forces arising from mechanical coupling between sister kinetochore fibers and bridging fibers, whose antiparallel microtubules are crosslinked by protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1), in chromosome alignment is unknown. Here we develop an optogenetic approach for acute removal of PRC1 and show that PRC1 promotes kinetochore alignment. PRC1 removal resulted in reduction of bridging fibers and straightening of outermost kinetochore fibers. The inter-kinetochore distance decreased, the metaphase plate widened, and lagging kinetochores appeared, suggesting a role of PRC1 in regulating forces on kinetochores. MKLP1/kinesin-6 was lost from the spindle together with PRC1, whereas Kif4A/kinesin-4 remained on chromosomes and CLASP1, Kif18A/kinesin-8, and CENP-E/kinesin-7 on kinetochore fiber tips. We conclude that in metaphase PRC1, by mechanically coupling bridging and kinetochore fibers, regulates spindle mechanics and buffers kinetochore movements, promoting chromosome alignment.
Developmental Biology | 21 Feb 2020
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An asymmetry in the frequency and position of mitosis in the epiblast precedes gastrulation and suggests a role for mitotic rounding in cell delamination during primitive streak epithelial-mesenchymal transition

Evangéline Despin-Guitard, Navrita Mathiah, Matthew Stower, Wallis Nahaboo, Elif Sema Eski, Sumeet Pal Singh, Shankar Srinivas, Isabelle Migeotte

The epiblast, a pseudostratified epithelium, is the precursor for the three main germ layers required for body shape and organogenesis: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. At gastrulation, a subpopulation of epiblast cells constitutes a transient posteriorly located structure called the primitive streak, where cells that undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition make up the mesoderm and endoderm lineages.In order to observe the behavior of individual cells, epiblast cells were labeled ubiquitously or in a mosaic fashion using fluorescent membrane reporters. The cell shapes of individual cells and the packing and behaviour of neighbouring cells during primitive streak formation were recorded through live time-lapse imaging. Posterior epiblast displayed a higher frequency of rosettes, a signature of cell rearrangements, prior to primitive streak initiation. A third of rosettes were associated with a central cell undergoing mitosis. Interestingly, cells at the primitive streak, in particular delaminating cells, underwent mitosis twice more frequently than other epiblast cells, suggesting a role for cell division in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Pseudostratified epithelia are characterized by interkinetic nuclear migration, where mitosis occurs at the apical side of the epithelium. However, we found that exclusively on the posterior side of the epiblast, mitosis was not restricted to the apical side. Non-apical mitosis was apparent as early as E5.75, just after the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis, and prior to initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Non-apical mitosis was associated with primitive streak morphogenesis, as it occurred specifically in the streak even when ectopically located. Most non-apical mitosis resulted in one or two daughter cells leaving the epiblast layer to become mesoderm. Furthermore, in contrast to what has been described in other pseudostratified epithelia such as neuroepithelium, the majority of cells dividing apically detached completely from the basal pole in the epiblast.Cell rearrangement associated with mitotic cell rounding in the posterior epiblast during gastrulation, in particular when it occurs on the basal side, might thus facilitate cell ingression through the PS and transition to a mesenchymal phenotype.GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT
Neuroscience | 05 Feb 2020
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Protective anti-prion antibodies in human immunoglobulin repertoires

Assunta Senatore, Karl Frontzek, Marc Emmenegger, Andra Chincisan, Marco Losa, Regina Reimann, Geraldine Horny, Jingjing Guo, Sylvie Fels, Silvia Sorce, Caihong Zhu, Nathalie George, Stefan Ewert, Thomas Pietzonka, Simone Hornemann, Adriano Aguzzi

Prion immunotherapy may hold great potential, but antibodies against certain PrP epitopes can be neurotoxic. Here we identified >6000 PrP-binding antibodies in a synthetic human Fab phage display library, 49 of which we characterized in detail. Antibodies directed against the flexible tail of PrP conferred neuroprotection against infectious prions. We then mined published repertoires of circulating B cells from healthy humans and found antibodies similar to the protective phage-derived antibodies. When expressed recombinantly, these antibodies exhibited anti-PrP reactivity. Furthermore, we surveyed 48’718 samples from 37’894 hospital patients for the presence of anti-PrP IgGs, and found 21 high-titer individuals. The clinical files of these individuals did not reveal any enrichment of specific pathologies, suggesting that anti-PrP autoimmunity is innocuous. The existence of protective anti-prion antibodies in unbiased human immunological repertoires, combined with the reported lack of such antibodies in carriers of disease-associated PRNP mutations, suggests a link to the low incidence of spontaneous prion diseases in human populations.
Cancer Biology | 11 Jan 2020
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Genetic interactions, such as synthetic lethal effects, can now be systematically identified in cancer cell lines using high-throughput genetic perturbation screens. Despite this advance, few genetic interactions have been reproduced across multiple studies and many appear highly context-specific. Understanding which genetic interactions are robust in the face of the molecular heterogeneity observed in tumours and what factors influence this robustness could streamline the identification of therapeutic targets. Here, we develop a computational approach to identify robust genetic interactions that can be reproduced across independent experiments and across non-overlapping cell line panels. We used this approach to evaluate >140,000 potential genetic interactions involving cancer driver genes and identified 1,520 that are significant in at least one study but only 220 that reproduce across multiple studies. Analysis of these interactions demonstrated that: (i) oncogene addiction effects are more robust than oncogene-related synthetic lethal effects; and (ii) robust genetic interactions in cancer are enriched for gene pairs whose protein products physically interact. This suggests that protein-protein interactions can be used not only to understand the mechanistic basis of genetic interaction effects, but also to prioritise robust targets for further development. To explore the utility of this approach, we used a protein-protein interaction network to guide the search for robust synthetic lethal interactions associated with passenger gene alterations and validated two novel robust synthetic lethalities.
Physiology | 27 Feb 2020
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Low-protein/high-carbohydrate diet induces AMPK-dependent canonical and non-canonical thermogenic response in subcutaneous adipose tissue

Katia Aquilano, Francesca Sciarretta, Riccardo Turchi, Bo-Han Li, Marco Rosina, Veronica Ceci, Giulio Guidobaldi, Simona Arena, Chiara D’Ambrosio, Matteo Audano, Illari Salvatori, Barbara Colella, Raffaella Faraonio, Concita Panebianco, Valerio Pazienza, Donatella Caruso, Nico Mitro, Sabrina Di Bartolomeo, Andrea Scaloni, Jing-Ya Li, Daniele Lettieri-Barbato

Low-protein/high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet promotes metabolic health and longevity in adult humans and animal models. However, the complex molecular underpinnings of how LPHC diet leads to metabolic benefits remain elusive. Through a multi-layered approach, here we observed that LPHC diet promotes an energy-dissipating response consisting in the parallel recruitment of canonical and non-canonical (muscular) thermogenic systems in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT). In particular, we measured Ucp1 induction in association with up-regulation of actomyosin components and several Serca (Serca1, Serca2a, Serca2b) ATPases. In beige adipocytes, we observed that AMPK activation is responsible for transducing the amino acid lowering in an enhanced fat catabolism, which sustains both Ucp1- and Serca-dependent energy dissipation. Limiting AMPK activation counteracts the expression of brown fat and muscular genes, including Ucp1 and Serca, as well as mitochondrial oxidative genes. We observed that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are the upstream molecules controlling AMPK-mediated metabolic rewiring in amino acid-restricted beige adipocytes. Our findings delineate a novel metabolic phenotype of responses to amino acid shortage, which recapitulates some of the benefits of cool temperature in sWAT. In conclusion, this highlights LPHC diet as a valuable and practicable strategy to prevent metabolic diseases through the enhancement of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and the recruitment of different energy dissipating routes in beige adipocytes.
Cell Biology | 23 Feb 2020
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Mitofusin 2 regulates neutrophil adhesive migration and the actin cytoskeleton

Wenqing Zhou, Alan Y. Hsu, Yueyang Wang, Tianqi Wang, Jacob Jeffries, Xu Wang, Haroon Mohammad, Mohamed N. Seleem, David Umulis, Qing Deng

Neutrophils rely on glycolysis for energy production. How mitochondria regulate neutrophil function is not fully understood. Here, we report that mitochondrial outer membrane protein Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) regulates neutrophil homeostasis in vivo. Mfn2-deficient neutrophils are released from the hematopoietic tissue and trapped in the vasculature in zebrafish embryos. Human neutrophil-like cells deficient with MFN2 fail to arrest on activated endothelium under sheer stress or perform chemotaxis. Deletion of Mfn2 results in a significant reduction of neutrophil infiltration to the inflamed peritoneal cavity in mice. Mfn2, but not Mfn1, -null mouse embryonic fibroblast cells have altered actin structure and are impaired in wound closure. MFN2-deficient neutrophil-like cells display heightened intracellular calcium levels and Rac activation after chemokine stimulation. Mechanistically, MFN2 maintains mitochondria-ER interaction. Restoring mitochondria-ER tether rescues the chemotaxis defect and Rac activation resulted from MFN2 depletion. Finally, inhibition of Rac restores chemotaxis in MFN2-deficient neutrophils. Altogether, we identified that MFN2 regulates neutrophil migration via suppressing Rac activation and uncovered a previously unrecognized role of MFN2 in regulating the actin cytoskeleton.